#OTD in Navy History Fact of the Month

LC-USZC4-2004:  WWI-Liberty Loan Poster.   “Invest in the Victory Liberty Loan / They Kept the Sea Lanes Open.”  Artwork by Leon A. Shafer, 1919.   Poster shows a German U-boat submarine and a razzle-dazzle destroyer steaming in to protect the merchant ship from being attacked.  Courtesy of the Library of Congress.

WWI-Liberty Loan Poster. “Invest in the Victory Liberty Loan / They Kept the Sea Lanes Open.” Artwork by Leon A. Shafer, 1919. The poster shows a German U-boat submarine and a razzle-dazzle destroyer steaming in to protect the merchant ship from being attacked. Courtesy of the Library of Congress. Accession #: LC-USZC4-2004

The first U.S. convoy leaves Hampton Roads, Va. to cross the North Atlantic after entering World War I on May 24, 1917. A total of 18,653 ships are escorted as they transport vast quantities of freight to the armies in France and the civilian population of the Allies, as well as more than 2 million troops.
During the 18 months of war, while American vessels escort convoys through the war zone, 183 attacks are made by submarines, 24 submarines are damaged and two are destroyed.

Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves, USN, commanded the Cruiser and Transport Force, consisting of forty-five commissioned ships, to help safeguard the transportation of American service personnel. The troopships departed in groups, about two hours apart, and sailed at different speeds. Each group was met while steaming off Europe and given additional escort into port from Queenstown, Ireland, destroyers. Though convoys gathered targets together, as the critics of the convoy system stated, the system proved to be a deterrent.


Title: Convoy Caption: United States merchant vessels nearing the English coast. Demonstrating how the vessels crossed the Atlantic for mutual protection. Description: Catalog #: NH 89 Copyright Owner: Naval History and Heritage Command


Military Spouse Appreciation Day

By Alura Romero, Naval History and Heritage Command Communication and Outreach Division
While military spouses should be recognized and honored every day, we want to take this special day – Military Spouse Appreciation Day – to show our respect and to thank the men and women who are the backbone of the fleet and the driving force behind our service members.
In 1984, Ronald Reagan believed so whole-heartedly in the importance of military spouses that he enacted Proclamation 5184, which made May 23 Military Spouse Day. President Reagan said in his proclamation, “As volunteers, military spouses have provided exemplary service and leadership in educational, community, recreational, religious, social and cultural endeavors. And as parents and homemakers, they preserve the cornerstone of our Nation’s strength—the American family.” Congress would later add Military Spouse Appreciation Day into the month of May, prompting the Department of Defense to reclassify Military Spouse Appreciation Day as May 10.
President Reagan understood the sacrifices that military spouses make—the countless months, days, and hours of waiting for their spouse to come home from deployment; sacrificing their own personal goals for the goals of the fleet. He understood that spouses put the service before themselves. In his proclamation, he empathized with spouses who have to leave places they’ve finally become accustomed to and friends they’ve just made.
While President Reagan was first to enact a national day celebrating spouses, he wasn’t the last to mention their unwavering loyalty to the service. In 2016, President Barack Obama said in a proclamation, “Serving alongside our Soldiers, Sailors, Airmen, Marines, and Coast Guardsmen, our Nation’s military families give of themselves and give up their time with their loved ones so we may live safely and freely. Few Americans fully understand the sacrifices made by those who serve in uniform, but for spouses of service members across our country, the costs of the freedom we too often take for granted are known intimately. On Military Spouse Appreciation Day, we honor the spouses of those who have left behind everything they know and love to join our Nation’s unbroken chain of patriots, and we recommit to giving military spouses the respect, dignity, and support they deserve.”

While the role of “military spouse” has always been noticed, there is another role (or service to the fleet) that sometimes goes unnoticed—the Navy Ombudsman. While honoring our spouses, we also want to show our appreciation and gratitude for the Navy Ombudsman—the official representative of Navy spouses fleet wide. Beginning with his “Z-Gram” on Sept. 14, 1970, Adm. Zumwalt instructed that the Navy needed representation for spouses. He instructed that “All shore-based commanders shall establish procedures which give Navy wives an opportunity to present complaints, viewpoints, and suggestions to Commanding Officers.”
Here’s to you spouses – here’s to your resilience, flexibility, patience, and respect for the fleet. In the words of President Obama, “Enduring separation and relocation, heartache and anticipation, military spouses demonstrate a strength reflective of the spirit of our Nation.”

Asian/Pacific Islander Heritage in the Navy

Adapted from 4 January 2013 essay by Regina T. Akers, Ph.D., Historian, Naval History and Heritage Command, with April 2017 update.


“Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders comprise many ethnicities and languages, and their myriad achievements embody the American experience. Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders have started businesses, including some of our Nation’s most successful and dynamic enterprises. AAPI men and women are leaders in every aspect of American life—in government and industry, science and medicine, the arts and our Armed Forces, education and sports.”
President Barak Obama
Presidential Proclamation
Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2012

Officers Cook, 3rd Class Forsia, First Native Samoan to be decorated in World War II

Officers Cook, 3rd Class Forsia. First Native Samoan to be decorated in World War II. He received the Purple Heart after being wounded when a Japanese submarine shelled Samoa on January 11, 1942. He is wearing the uniform of the Samoan Naval Fita-Fita Guard. Photograph taken in Tutuila on May 27, 1943. https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/photography/numerical-list-of-images/nhhc-series/nh-series/USMC-56000/USMC-56078.html

The Origin of Asian American Pacific Islander Heritage Month
Congress approved a joint Congressional Resolution (Public Law 95-419, 95th Congress) on 5 October 1978 authorizing and requesting the President to proclaim the 7 day period beginning on 4 May 1979 as “Asian/Pacific American Heritage Week.” The week coincides with two dates: 7 May 1869, the arrival of the first Japanese immigrants to the United States, and 10 May 1869, the “Golden Spike Day,” the day that the transcontinental railroad was completed. Congress extended the week to a month with their joint Congressional Resolution (Public Law 102-42, 102nd Congress) on 14 May 1991. Public Law 102-450 permanently designated May of each year as Asian/Pacific Heritage Month and authorized and requested that the President issue annually a proclamation asking Americans to observe the month.
U.S. Military Service of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders of various nationalities and ancestry—Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Southeast Asian, Asian Indian, and Polynesian—have a rich legacy of service and sacrifice in the United States Navy dating back to the 19th century. The U.S. Navy had maintained a presence in East Asia since the 1830s to safeguard American interests during the Chinese civil unrest. Ships whose crews counted men of Asian descent on the Asiatic Station protected U.S. commerce, missionaries, and diplomats in the region. During the American Civil War, Chinese men served on dozens of Union vessels. The U.S. gunboat Ashuelot, part of the Asiatic Fleet, operated along the cost of China, up the Yangtze River, and among the Japanese treaty ports and carried a crew in 1883 that was four-fifths Asian-born from Thailand, Japan, or China.
In 1898, the battleship Maine exploded and sank in Havana Harbor. The blast, which killed 266 men, including those of Japanese and Chinese extraction, provided the catalyst for a war with Spain that spread to its colonies in the Far East where the U.S. Asiatic Squadron, commanded by Commodore George Dewey, defeated the Spanish fleet in the Battle of Manila Bay. As a result of the war, the United States gained the Philippines as a territory as well as other island possessions in the Pacific and the Caribbean. These events enabled large numbers of Filipinos and other Pacific islanders to join the U.S. Navy.
Asian Americans continued to turn up on the rolls of U.S. warships. Navy Fireman First Class Telesforo de la Cruze Trinidad, a Filipino, received the Congressional Medal of Honor for rescuing two men after a boiler exploded on board San Diego on 21 January 1915.The destroyer USS Rizal, newly commissioned in 1919, was donated to the U.S. Navy by the Philippine legislature and named in honor of the martyred Philippine patriot Dr. Jose Rizal (1861–1996). Her crew was predominantly Filipino American.
During World War II, Chinese and Japanese American men and women enlisted for military service in great numbers. More than 20,000 Chinese Americans, or one out of every five in the United States, served in the U.S. Armed Forces. Although barred from the naval service and interned by the U.S. government following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese Americans fought in some of the Army’s most decorated units. Filipino Americans and Korean Americans also participated in the nation’s war effort. Asian Americans served as nurses and as linguists in the Navy’s female reserve program. Chinese American Hazel Ying Lee was one of the 38 Women Air Force Service Pilots who died in the line of duty. Maggie Gee gave pilots their qualifying flights and flew planes for artillery training exercises. The three Ahn siblings, Ralph, Philip and Susan, from one of California’s first Korean immigrant families, enlisted in the U.S. military in 1942. Lieutenant Susan Ahn Cuddy was the first Korean American woman in the U.S. military and the first female Navy gunnery officer.
Among the many Asian Pacific Americans who distinguished themselves during World War II was Daniel K. Inouye, a Hawaiian native, who was planning to become a medical doctor when the War Department reversed its decision to exclude Japanese American volunteers. Inouye was assigned to Company E, 442nd Regimental Combat Team, fighting in France’s Rhone valley when he received a battlefield commission as a second lieutenant. Injured and under enemy fire, he destroyed three German bunkers that allowed his unit to seize the ridge guarding a critical road near San Terenzo, Italy. His right arm had to be amputated. After a reevaluation of the military accomplishments of Asian Americans in World War II, President Bill Clinton presented Senator Inouye with the Medal of Honor for his heroism in Italy. After extensive recuperation, he studied law. In 1954, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Hawaii, further distinguishing himself as the first Asian American member of Congress. Eight years later he continued representing his state as a Senator and held that position until his death in 2012.
Commander Gordon Chung-Hoon, of Chinese-Hawaiian parentage and a 1934 U.S. Naval Academy graduate, commanded the destroyer USS Sigsbee (DD-502) in the Pacific Theater, which earned him the Silver Star, the third highest combat award. On 14 April 1945, when kamikazes attacked Sigsbee and five other destroyers off Okinawa, one plane crashed Sigsbee’s stern. Chung-Hoon received the Navy Cross, the Navy’s highest medal and the nation’s second highest combat decoration for his actions. He retired in 1959 as a two-star admiral and the nation’s first Asian Pacific American flag officer. The Navy honored him in 2009 by naming a guided missile destroyer USS Chung-Hoon (DDG-93).
Asian Pacific Americans continued their honorable service throughout the Cold War. In 1948, President Harry S. Truman issued Executive Order 9981 mandating that “there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin.” The watershed 1965 Immigration Act lifted the heavy restrictions on Asian immigration that prevailed throughout most of the 20th century.
Commander Gordon Ross Nakagawa flew 185 combat missions in the A-6 intruder during four combat deployments to Vietnam. He was the Executive Officer of Attack Squadron 196 flying from USS Enterprise (CVAN-65) when his AGA intruder was shot down during a single plan low level night strike against Haiphong. He was a Prisoner of War at the infamous Hanoi Hilton from 21 December 1972 to 29 March 1973. Nakagawa continued his service until his retirement in the rank of captain. He remained active in his community until his death on 24 August 2011. His son, Navy Captain Steven Nakagawa, also flew the A-6. On 1 June 2012, he took command of the Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division.
Jim Huen’s father enlisted in the Navy in 1932 and retired as a Chief Petty Officer. After Congress passed an act allowing veterans with honorable discharges to get their American citizenship, his father became a U.S. citizen. Jim Huen, like his father, experienced racism in the Navy. While completing supply officer school in Athens, Georgia in 1965, he encountered prejudice from locals and off base. He completed a seven month Western Pacific deployment aboard USS Delta (AR-9) as the dispersing and food service officer. One of the crewmembers on the ship wore his cover with the words “Go Home Chink” printed on it. The ship had 520 crew members. Huen was one of five supply corps offices and the only Chinese American on his ship. The commanding officer and executive officer were Naval Academy graduates and half the officers were former enlisted. There were at least twelve African Americans on the ship.
Carolyn Hisako Tanaka, a California native, witnessed the government evicting her family from their home and relocating them in an internment camp in Poston, Arizona, following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. This memory did not deter her family from joining the military. Her older brother was a Korean War veteran and her two youngest brothers enlisted in the Army. She was an emergency room nurse when she decided to join them. She served as the Head Nurse at the 24th Evacuation Hospital in Long Bin in 1967. She received the Bronze Star for meritorious service.
Robert K. U. Kihune, a 1959 Naval Academy graduate, had an outstanding 35-year career. He commanded two carrier battle groups, participated in the Navy’s response to the Lebanon crisis, the capture of terrorists in the Achille Lauro hijacking, and the antiterrorism air strikes against Libya. His promotion to Vice Admiral in 1988 made him the first Asian American to reach that rank. As the Commander of the Pacific Fleet Naval Surface Forces, he provided half of the naval forces in support of the First Gulf War. Captain Tem E. Bugarin, the son of a retired senior chief radioman, was the first Filipino to command a surface combatant ship, USS Saginaw (LST-1188) in August 1989. Rear Admiral Eleanor Concepcion Mariano continued her family’s legacy of naval service, which dates back to 1920. Her father, a Filipino master chief petty officer, served 29 years in the Navy’s steward’s branch. Rear Admiral Mariano was the attending physician to the President at the White House for President Clinton and President George W. Bush. President Clinton promoted her to flag rank in 2000, making her the first Filipino American to reach flag rank.
Asian American and Pacific Islander Sailors continue to excel in the 21st century. Captain David Yoshihara commanded Destroyer Squadron 9 in 2003. His father, retired Navy Captain Takeshi Yoshihara, was the first Japanese American to attend the Naval Academy. Lieutenant junior grade Jeanette Gracie Shin, the first Buddhist chaplain in the Armed Forces, signed her oath of office in the Pentagon in July 2004. Admiral Harry B. Harris Jr. was assigned as the assistant to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 2011. His former commands include the Sixth Fleet. In May 2015 he assumed command of the U.S. Pacific Command. Vice Admiral Raquel C. Bono, Medical Corps, of Asian American and Hispanic Heritage, served as the command surgeon, U.S. Pacific Command, from November 2011 to June 2013 and was then selected as Director, Defense Health Agency.
Asian American and Pacific Islander Sailors also participated in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Mass Communication Specialist First Class Kenneth Takada, a Japanese-American, completed four deployments in the Fifth Fleet Area of Responsibility and earned five Navy Achievement Medals, the Iraqi Campaign Medal, and the Combat Action Ribbon. He was the combat photographer for a special operations unit for one of his tours. Rear Admiral Jonathan A. Yuen was the Commander, Joint Theater Support, Contracting Command, United States Central Command, Kabul Afghanistan. Lieutenant Manuel Querido, the chaplain with the 3rd Battalion, 11th Marine Regiment, conducted counterinsurgency operations with the Afghan national security forces in 2009. In the same year, Captain Enrique Sadsad, a Philippine-born American citizen, became the commanding officer of Naval Support Activity Bahrain, which supports naval forces in the Middle East. Marcos Sibal served as fleet master chief for Commander, U.S. Seventh Fleet. He retired from his final active duty assignment as Navy Region Hawaii Command Master Chief in 2013.
Navy Captain and astronaut Sunita L. Williams epitomizes the wide range of opportunities for all minorities in the Navy. Of Asian Indian parentage, Williams graduated from the Naval Academy in 1987 and became a Navy helicopter pilot and test pilot. Selected as an astronaut, she traveled on the space shuttle in late 2006 to serve as flight engineer and science officer on the International Space Station. Her four spacewalks as an Expedition-14 crew member established a record for women at the time. She also set a record for women by spending more than six months in Earth Orbit.

Happy Birthday Submarine Force!

April 11th is important at Submarine Bases around the country.  April 11, 1900, was when the U.S. Navy purchased its first submarine – Holland VI. But April 11 also marks the beginning of Naval Submarine Base New London. From CNIC’s website, the following tells the story of Subase New London.

Naval Submarine Base New London is the Navy’s first Submarine Base and the “Home of the Submarine Force.”
Naval Submarine Base New London had its beginning as a naval yard and storage depot on April 11, 1868.
Envisioning the economic potential of a local military installation, the state of Connecticut and its southeastern cities and towns had donated land along the Thames River to the Navy for the establishment of a base. The citizens of New London were especially generous, as their City Council appropriated $10,000 to purchase the land that would be donated.
The first Commander of the Yard was retired Commodore Timothy A. Hunt, who was called back to service. Living in New Haven, Commodore Hunt used the Central Hotel on State Street, New London when in town to attend to Yard duties on an “as needed” basis. Despite being physically located in the Town of Groton, the name New London became associated with the Navy Yard.
The Navy Yard was first used for laying up inactive ships. The Congressional appropriations were small and the Navy had little need for the Yard, which was actually closed from 1898 to 1900 and the personnel reassigned.
In 1898, Congress approved a coaling station be built at the Yard for refueling small naval ships traveling through the waters of New England.
By 1912, oil replaced coal in warships and again the Yard was scheduled for closure and the land relinquished by the Navy.
The Navy Yard was spared permanent closure in 1912 by an impassioned plea from local Congressman Edwin W. Higgins of Norwich, who was worried about the loss of Federal spending in the region. Strangely, Higgins thought it was cheaper for the Navy to keep the Yard open than pay for its closure. Within in six years, the Federal government would spend over a million dollars at the Yard.
October 18, 1915, marked the arrival of the submarines G-1, G-2, and G-4 under the care of the tender USS Ozark. Submarines E-1, D-1 and D-3 with the tender USS Tonopah bolstered this small force. The first ship built as a submarine tender, the USS Fulton (AS-1), arrived on Nov 1, 1915.
On June 21, 1916, the Navy Yard changed forever as Commander Yeates Stirling assumed the command of the newly designated Submarine Base, the New London Submarine Flotilla, and the Submarine School.
Today, Naval Submarine Base New London, our Navy’s first submarine base, still proudly proclaims its motto: “The First and Finest.”
The Base property expanded during the latter part of World War I. Congress approved over a million dollars for Base real estate and facilities expansion. By the end of the war, 81 buildings had been built to support 1400 men and 20 submarines. With victory in hand, the land expansion of the Base was slowed through much of the 1920s. However, the Great Depression of the 1930s saw an expansion and enhancement of the physical plant of the Base.
President Franklin Roosevelt created a series of Federal Government employment programs that contributed significantly to the Submarine Base. Over 26 high-quality warehouses, barracks and workshops were built at the base under these Federal job-spending programs.
The Submarine Escape Training Tank, long known as the “Dive Tower,” was a constructed during this period and became a prominent feature to the local landscape from 1930 to 1992. Generations of submariners practiced escaping from sunken submarines through the Dive Tower by ascending in a 100-foot column of water.
The second largest expansion of Submarine Base New London occurred during World War II when it grew from 112 acres to 497 acres. The Submarine Force leaped in size, and the Base accommodated thousands of men to service the growing combat fleet.
Immediately after WWII the Submarine Force was significantly reduced and many famous submarines were sent into storage. Most of the WWII fleet was sold for scrap metal during the early 1960s. The remainder were modified for better underwater capabilities and served until the early 1970s.
The arrival of nuclear power with the USS Nautilus (SSN-571), the world’s first nuclear-powered vessel, and the USS George Washington (SSBN-598), the Navy’s first nuclear ballistic submarine, created changes at the Base.
Commissioned in 1954, and homeported at the Base, Nautilus became the first vessel to transit the North Pole during an historic trip across the Arctic in 1958. Retired from service in 1980, Nautilus became an historic exhibit at the Submarine Force Museum, adjacent to the Base, in 1985.
Technological changes contributed to a cycle of renewal and reconstruction of the various physical facilities that supported both submarine operations as well as the Submarine School. The Fleet Ballistic Missile program further expanded the Base.
The Base was the headquarters for Squadron 14 for many years, which represented the “two crew per boat” philosophy of the Fleet Ballistic Missile Program. Two crews would rotate on one submarine. In the early days, the limited range of missiles required long term forward positioning of the ballistic missile submarine and a supporting dry dock and tender. The Squadron 14 forward site as Holy Loch, Scotland.
By the 1990s, advances in missile capability eliminated the need for these forward bases and Submarine Base New London became home to only “attack” submarines.
Today, Naval Submarine Base New London stretches along the east side of the Thames River, straddling the communities of Groton and Ledyard. While Groton is often referred to as the “Submarine Capital of the World,” the Base proudly bears the title – “Home of the Submarine Force.” Almost every submariner in today’s Navy will be stationed here for training. A tour of duty in one of the fast-attack submarines home ported here or with a pre-commissioning crew for a new submarine under construction at General Dynamics Electric Boat Shipyard in Groton may follow.
Occupying more than 680 acres, with more than 160 major facilities and 15 nuclear submarines, Naval Submarine Base New London supports fleet readiness by providing quality service and facilities to our Fleet, Fighters, and Families. The Base mission is twofold: to homeport and put Submarines to sea; and to support the Submarine Center of Excellence that trains Sailors to take Submarines to sea.
Naval Submarine Base New London is also home to more than 70 tenant commands and activities including Commander Submarine Group Two; the Submarine Learning Center; Naval Submarine School; the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory; and, the Naval Undersea Medical Institute
Naval Submarine Base New London is the Navy’s first Submarine Base and the “Home of the Submarine Force.”


Happy Birthday, Submarine Force!

{Article from : https://www.cnic.navy.mil/regions/cnrma/installations/navsubbase_new_london/about/history.html

Medal of Honor Day


Image from www.military.com

Since 1991, we have celebrated Medal of Honor Day On March 25.  On November 15, 1990 President George H.W. Bush signed Public Law 101-564 into place securing March 25th as the day in which we honor those who went above and beyond. When did the Medal of Honor originate?

1861– President Abraham Lincoln created the U.S. Navy Medal of Valor
1862– President Lincoln awarded the U.S. Army Medal of Honor
1863– The Medal of Honor was made a permanent military decoration to all members who served. Since its creation, more than 3,400 men and one woman have received the Medal of Honor.

March 25th was chosen as the official day to honor the 23 men who received the first official Medal of Honor on March 25, 1863. The first award was given to the men of the Great Locomotive Chase in April of 1862. During the chase, Union soldiers commandeered a train and did as much damage as possible to the railroad line that the Confederates relied upon.

The law signed by President Bush, reads in part “Whereas the Medal of Honor is the highest distinction that can be awarded by the president, in the name of Congress, to members of the armed forces who have distinguished themselves conspicuously by gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of their lives above and beyond the call of duty…Whereas public awareness of the importance of the Medal of Honor has declined in recent years; and Whereas the designation of National Medal of Honor Day will focus the efforts of national, State, and local organizations striving to foster public appreciation and recognition of Medal of Honor recipients.”

Some Interesting Facts
Since 1863, only one woman has ever won the award. A medical doctor named Mary Edwards Walker. Mary had volunteered with the Union Army at the outbreak of the Civil War. Having crossed enemy lines in order to treat civilians, Mary was captured by Confederate troops in the summer of 1864. She was later released and received the Medal of Honor from President Andrew Johnson on November 11, 1865.

Only one president has received the award, President Theodore Roosevelt. His son, Theodore Roosevelt Jr., earned one in World War II, making them the only father-son pair to win the prestigious award. President Roosevelt’s award was given posthumously by President Bill Clinton in 2001. The Medal was awarded to Roosevelt for his actions during the Spanish-American War with his regiment known as the Rough Riders.

The youngest recipient of the award in the 20th century was Jack Lucas, a marine who fought in Iwo Jima. He was only 17 when it was awarded.

The award is not named the Congressional Medal of Honor. Its official name is simply Medal of Honor. Many confuse the title in part because when being awarded the President says, “in the name of Congress.”

Submariners and the Medal of Honor
Since its creation, only a small number of Submariners have been awarded the prestigious medal. Their stories can be found on display in our permanent Medal of Honor Gallery here at the museum. The courageous men held within the gallery are:

Henry Breault- Torpedoman 2nd Class, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. 0-5
Howard Walter Gilmore- Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Growler
John Philip Cromwell- Captain, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Sculpin
Samuel David Dealey- Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Harder
Lawson Paterson Ramage- Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S Parche
Richard Hetherington O’Kane- Commander, U.S Navy, U.S.S. Tang
Eugene Bennett Fluckey- Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S Barb
George Levick Street III- Commander, U.S. Navy, U.S.S. Tirante

Submarines in Art

Submarines have fascinated the world for centuries. The idea of underwater travel has been apart of most of record history. In 1776, the Turtle became the first submersible to perform an attack on another vessel. During the Civil War, the H.L Hunley sank the Housatonic. As diesel power grew, so did submarines. They became an essential part of the Navy, providing defense to the American coastlines and shipping lanes during WWI. During WWII, submarines sank one-third of the Imperial Navy. The 1950’s saw the birth of nuclear-powered submarines and a complete change to how the submarine force operated. The submarine force is also known as the silent service – the inner working of the force is a secret, classified to those who aren’t part of the crew. Artists over the years have tried to capture this secretive force, “drawn to its sleek yet hidden ship.” They try to capture the mystery of submarines in their work, giving us a glimpse under the water. Below you will find a collection of artworks from the NHHC Collection.

CSS H.L Hunley

Description: Drawing, Pen and Ink on Paper; R.G. Skerrett; 1902; Framed Dimensions 20H X 25W
Accession #: 45-125-P

A man stands in front of the USS Hunley

H L Hunley, a small hand-powered submarine, was built privately at Mobile, Alabama, in 1863, based on plans furnished by Horace Lawson Hunley, James R. McClintock and Baxter Watson. Her construction was sponsored by Mr. Hunley and superintended by Confederate officers W. A. Alexander and G. E. Dixon. Following trails in Mobile Bay, she was transported to Charleston, South Carolina, in August 1863 to serve in the defense of that port. On February 17, 1864, she was part of blockade duty off Charleston, approached the steam sloop of war USS HOUSATONIC and detonated a spar torpedo against her side. The Federal ship sank rapidly, becoming the first warship to be lost to a submarine attack. However, H L HUNLEY did not return from this mission, and was presumed lost with all hands. Her fate remained a mystery for over 131 years, until May 1995, when a search led by author Clive Cussler located her wreck. In August 2000, following extensive preliminary work, H L HUNLEY was raised and taken to a conservation facility at the former Charleston Naval Base.

USS Barracuda in Drydock at Portsmouth Navy Yard, New Hampshire

Description: Drawing, Pen and Ink on Paper; by Vernon Howe Bailey; 1941; Framed Dimensions 31H X 39W
Accession #: 88-165-CB

A submarine at dry dock with scaffolding and work crews along the side

After thirteen years of service beginning in 1924, USS BARRACUDA was decommissioned in 1937 and placed in the reserves. The submarine was recommissioned in 1940. The submarine is seen in a drydock at the Portsmouth Navy Yard before it left the Yard in March of 1941 to join Submarine Division 71 operating in the New England area. Established by the Federal Government in 1800, Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) launched its first product, the 74-gun warship USS Washington, in 1815. During World War I, the PNSY workforce expanded to nearly 5,000. At this time, PNSY took on a new and important role—the construction of submarines—in addition to the overhaul and repair of surface vessels. World War II saw the civilian employment rolls swell to over 25,000. Over the course of World War II over 70 submarines were constructed at PNSY, with a record four submarines launched on one day. Following World War II, PNSY was the Navy’s center for submarine design and development. PNSY continued to build submarines until 1969, when the last submarine built in a public shipyard, the nuclear powered USS Sand Lance, was launched. Today the Shipyard continues the tradition of excellence and service to the Navy and the nation by supplying the U.S Navy’s submarine fleet with high quality, affordable, overhaul, refueling and modernization work.

All Hands Below, USS Dorado

Description: Painting, Watercolor on Paper; by Georges Schreiber; 1943; Framed Dimensions 31H X 39W
Accession #: 88-159-IU as a Gift of Abbott Laboratories, Inc.

Sailors at a table relaxing they are next to two torpedoes

Relieving the tension of hours below surface, crewmen on board a U.S. Navy submarine play a round of cards while a shipmate kibitzes from his bunk. While pondering his cards, each player also listens for the call to battle stations. In the foreground, the bulbous warheads of twin torpedoes seem to peer balefully in quest of targets.

USS Nautilus 

Description: Painting, Watercolor on Paper; by Albert K. Murray; C. 1957; Framed Dimensions 31H X 39W
Accession #: 88-195-HL

Men in a small boat approach a submarine on the surface

On 17 January 1955 U.S.S. Nautilus (SSN-571) signaled the attainment of the long-anticipated goal of “underway with nuclear power.” Nautilus is called the first “true submarine” because it was capable of operating for long periods without frequent contact with the surface and air of the above world

Loading Fish, USS Seacat

Description: Painting, Watercolor on Paper; by Salvatore Indiviglia; 1960; Framed Dimensions 29H X 42W
Accession #: 88-161-UI

A crew on the deck of a submarine are maneuvering a torpedo

Sailors gently lower 4000 pounds of torpedoes into the submarine Seacat (SS 399) in July 1960. In this era of Cold War tensions, Seacat helped keep watch of the United States southern coast and in the Caribbean. A torpedo, or “fish”, is being loaded into USS Seacat (SS-399) in preparation for an exercise off Naval Station, Key West. The men pull and strain, hold and release their lines so that the 4000 pound bomb is safely lowered below.

Trident, The Black Knight

Description: Painting, Oil on Masonite; by John Charles Roach; 1984; Framed Dimensions 34H X 44W
Accession #: 88-163-CU

A submarine is tied up to pier that is in a building

USS Michigan (SSBN-727) rests quietly at the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, Scotland in 1988, waiting to be replenished for sea.

These artists were able to provide a glimpse of the submarine force through a medium many might not expect.

To check out the rest of the collection visit the View From the Periscope exhibit page at https://www.history.navy.mil/our-collections/art/exhibits/communities/a-view-from-the-periscope.html

Do you have a favorite piece of submarine art?


Return of the Union Jack

On February 21, 2019, the Navy put out a press release announcing its decision to begin displaying the union jack instead of the first Navy jack aboard Navy ships. Beginning on June 4, the date of the Battle of Midway, all US Navy ships will return to flying the union jack. In its press releases Adm. John Richardson stated that “Make no mistake: we have entered a new era of competition. We must recommit to the core attributes that made us successful at Midway: integrity, accountability, initiative and toughness. For more than 240 years, the union jack, flying proudly from jackstaffs aboard U.S. Navy warships, has symbolized these strengths.”https://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=108663 He also comments that “The union jack is deeply connected to our heritage and our rise as a global nation with a global Navy.” Once the union jack is returned to flying, the navy will re-establish the custom in where the commissioned ship in active service the longest total period in active service having will display the first Navy jack until its decommissioning This is other than the USS Constitution. Beginning on June 4th, this would mean the USS Blue Ridge (LLC 19). But for those not in the Navy, what is the union jack and what is its history. Below you will find excerpts from the Naval History and Heritage Command on the topic.

Midshipman 4th Class Nicholas D. Brockert raises the Union Jack aboard Yard Patrol Craft 691 (YP-691).

Midshipman 4th Class Nicholas D. Brockert raises the union jack aboard yard patrol craft 691 (YP-691), after mooring in Philadelphia, 24 March 2006. YP-691 was one of six YPs on a three-day training cruise designed to provide midshipmen from the U.S. Naval Academy hands-on underway training in navigation, ship handling, and seamanship (U.S. Navy photo by Airman Cale Hanie).

A jack is a flag corresponding in appearance to the union or canton of the national ensign. In the United States Navy, it is a blue flag containing a star for each state. For countries whose colors have no canton, the jack is simply a small national ensign. On a sailing vessel, the jack is hoisted at the jack-staff shipped at the bowsprit cap when at anchor or in port.
The United States Navy originated as the Continental Navy, established early in the American Revolution by the Continental Congress by a resolution of 13 October 1775. There is a widespread belief that ships of the Continental Navy flew a jack consisting of alternating red and white stripes, having the image of a rattlesnake stretched out across it, with the motto “Don’t Tread on Me.” That belief, however, rests on no firm base of historical evidence.
It is well documented that the rattlesnake and the motto “Don’t Tread on Me” were used together on several flags during the War of Independence. The only question in doubt is whether the Continental Navy actually used a red and white striped flag with a rattlesnake and the motto “Don’t Tread on Me” as its jack. The evidence is inconclusive. There is reason to believe that the Continental Navy jack was simply a red and white striped flag with no other adornment.

A view of the first navy jack flying on the Nautilus overlooking the Thames River

The rattlesnake emerged as a symbol of the English colonies of North America about the time of the Seven Years War, when it appeared in newspaper prints with the motto “Join or Die.” By the time of the War of Independence, the rattlesnake, frequently used in conjunction with the motto “Don’t Tread on Me,” was a common symbol for the United States, its independent spirit, and its resistance to tyranny.
Two American military units of the Revolution are known to have used the rattlesnake and the “Don’t Tread on Me” motto: Proctor’s Independent Battalion, of Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, and Sullivan’s Life Guard during the Rhode Island campaign of 1777. The rattlesnake and the motto also appeared on military accoutrements, such as drums, and on state paper currency, during the Revolution.
The Union Jack
The union jack, comprising the national ensign’s blue field and white stars, was first adopted on 14 June 1777. At this time, the jack’s blue field only displayed the 13 stars representing the union of the original 13 American colonies. The number of stars on the jack was periodically updated as the United States expanded. The 50-star jack in use until 10 September 2002—and again after 21 February 2019—was adopted on 4 July 1960 after Hawaii became the nation’s 50th state.
The Rattlesnake Jack and the Modern Navy
As part of the commemoration of the bicentennial of the American Revolution, by an instruction dated 1 August 1975 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.3) the Secretary of the Navy directed the use of the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack during the period 13 October 1975 (the bicentennial of the legislation that created the Continental Navy, which the Navy recognizes as the Navy’s birthday), and 31 December 1976.
By an instruction dated 18 August 1980 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.4), the Secretary of the Navy directed that the commissioned ship in active status having the longest total period in active status to display the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack until decommissioned or transferred to inactive status.
With the implementation of that instruction, those ships included:
1981–82: USS Dixie (AD-14), commissioned in 1940
1982–93: USS Prairie (AD-15), commissioned in 1940
1993–93: USS Orion (AS-18), commissioned in 1943 (six months)
1993–94: USS Yosemite (AD-19), commissioned in 1944
1994–95: USS Jason (AR-8), commissioned in 1944
1995–95: USS Mauna Kea (AE-22), commissioned in 1957 (one week)
1995–98: USS Independence (CV-62), commissioned in 1959
1998–2009: USS Kitty Hawk (CV-63), commissioned in 1961
By an instruction dated 31 May 2002 (SECNAV Instruction 10520.6), the Secretary of the Navy directed the use of the rattlesnake jack in place of the union jack for the duration of the Global War on Terrorism.
On 21 February 2019, to signify the Navy and the nation entering a new era of competition, Chief of Naval Operations Admiral John Richardson directed the fleet, via NAVADMIN 039/19, to return to the previous practice of flying the union jack effective 4 June 2019. The date for reintroduction of the union jack commemorates the greatest naval battle in history: The Battle of Midway, which began 4 June 1942.


Pete Tzomes and the Centennial Seven

In May of 1983, Pete Tzomes made history by becoming the first African American to command a submarine. His journey to the submarine force was like many others. Inspired by a midshipman who visited his middle school, Tzomes set his sights on the Navy after graduation. However, this was the late 50’s, and Tzomes was discouraged from his preferred career choice. At that time, African Americans were not lining the halls of the Naval Academy. Becoming a Naval officer was so unheard of that his guidance counselor advised him to think of a different career choice. After not receiving an appointment to the academy in his senior year of high school, Tzomes enrolled in Oneonta State University, and took the test a second time. Due to his excellent grades, he was selected to attend as a qualified alternate.


It was in 1963 that the civil rights movement was hitting its peak. It was the year of Dr. Martlin Luther King Jr and the march on Washington. Riots were exploding across the country demanding justice and racial equality. 1963 was also the year that Pete Tzomes began his career at the U.S. Naval Academy. Wanting to become a Marine pilot, it was not race that would stand in his way, but rather his height. Too short to enter the pilot program, Tzomes applied for the nuclear power program. He became the second African American accepted and the first in submarines.
Tzomes recalls his first submarine and the subject of race. He says that, “On my first submarine there were two blacks, a first-class steward and a first class torpedoman. They looked at me with pride. You could see it in the way they interacted with me. They were proud that there was a black officer that they can call ‘sir.” After serving aboard submarines for a few years, he began to appreciate his decision to become a submariner. Serving aboard multiple ships and several special ops missions, he set his sights on being able to command a fast attack submarine. He knew what achieving that goal would mean. He was well aware that he would be the first and what that meant for the future of African Americans in the submarine force. However, race was not what truly drove him. He wanted to command a fast attack. He wanted to be the one in charge. It just so happened that he was black. In November of 1979, he reported to the USS Cavalla, as an executive officer. He served about her for three years, knowing that a good tour could land him his dream position.
In 1983, Tzomes became the commanding officer of the USS Houston. When the ship switched homeports and moved to San Diego, he recalls the hero’s welcome he received. “I’ll never forget, it was 9 or 10 o’clock at night. I was just beaming. There were several folks from the black community in San Diego that made it a point. They were on the waterfront to greet me. It’s kind of hard to describe. That just made me feel special.”
Word of Tzomes’ command spread, inspiring young black sailors to reach for their highest potentials. As the centennial of the submarine force grew close, the group of commanding officers had grown. There were now seven. Seven men who did not let race define them or their careers. Seven men who saw themselves not as black commanding officers but commanding officers who had done something special. It was this realization that led to the phrase “centennial seven” to describe the men who had achieved something great. Joining Tzomes in the honor are Rear Adm. Bruce Grooms, Rear Adm. Tony Watson, Capt. Will Bundy, Vice Adm. Mel Williams, Capt. Joe Peterson, and Adm. Cecil Haney. Today, the seven first African American commanding officers take time out of their schedules to mentor young sailors and inspire them. While the submarine force has come a long way from the 1963 service that Tzomes entered into, there is always room for growth. However, Tzomes points out it is important to see just how far they have come and to be extremely proud of it.

See the source image

BALTIMORE (Feb. 21, 2009) Members of the Navy’s Centennial Seven pose with U.S. Naval Academy midshipmen. Capt. Pete Tzomes, left, Rear Adm. Tony Watson, Capt. Will Bundy, Vice Adm. Mel Williams, Capt. Bill Peterson, Rear Adm. Cecil Haney, Rear Adm. Bruce Grooms, Cmdr. Rich Bryant, Cmdr. Roger Isom. (U.S. Navy photo by Lt. Karen Eifert/Released)

As stories are shared this Black History Month, it’s important to remember just how far we have come and share the stories of those who paved the way. Without them and their courage and perseverance, things may have taken a lot longer to change.

USS South Dakota- SSN 790

On February 2, 2019, the U.S. Navy welcomed its newest submarine – USS South Dakota. SSN 790 is the seventeenth Virginia- class submarine to join the fleet. The newest member of the fleet features a redesigned bow, having two large-diameter Virginia Payload tubes instead of the 12 individual vertical launch system. Each of these VPT’s can launch six Tomahawk cruise missiles. The traditional periscopes have been replaced by two photonics masts that have infrared digital cameras on telescoping arms.


SSN 790 is the third ship to bear the South Dakota name. The first was a cruiser that was used between 1904 and 1912. The second ship was BB-57, a battleship that was commissioned in 1942. She played a vital role in blocking Japanese forces from entering Guadalcanal. During her service, she earned 13 battle stars and was present in Toyoko Bay when Japan formally surrender on Sept 2, 1945. A few of the WWII veterans who served aboard BB-57 were invited to the commissioning of SSN 790.

Mr. Richard Hackley, a USS South Dakota (BB 57) and WWII veteran, passes the long glass to Lt. Benjamin McFarland, the first Officer of the Deck, during the commissioning ceremony of USS South Dakota (SSN 790) Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Jeffrey Richardson https://www.dvidshub.net/image/5075534/uss-south-dakota-ssn-790-commissioning

The commissioning fell during the arctic blast that had been making its way across the country that week, creating for bitter conditions while outdoors. This did not keep the spectators away, with many flying in from South Dakota to witness the commissioning.

Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Jeffrey Richardson

Ship’s Sponsor Deanie Dempsey gives the order, “Man our ship and bring her to life!” during the commissioning ceremony Photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Jeffrey Richardson

During the weekend of festivities, those invited to the commissioning were able to take a tour of the Navy’s newest submarine. One highlight is being able to see the heavily decorated dining hall onboard that pays tribute to its namesake state.

A look inside the Navy’s newest submarine shows how the dining hall has paid tribute to the ship’s namesake. https://www.argusleader.com/picture-gallery/news/2019/01/09/sailors-manning-u-s-s-south-dakota-submarine/2524775002/?fbclid=IwAR3-4vG8HibI9zogIPCjpcMfptn-1SJQRza459ooCagQH01Jk20DvCBAC1s

Welcome to the fleet USS South Dakota!

USS Tunny

While our museum houses some impressive and large artifacts, some of our exhibits are physically a part of the building itself. When you walk through the halls, you may notice some murals depicting different moments in the submarine force. These images are just as fascinating as the physical items stored around them. Over the next few months, we will look at these murals and the stories they tell.

In the main walkway, is a black and white image of the USS Tunny (SSG-282.) The image shows the submarine launching a Regulus cruise missile, which was the precursor to the first generation of the Polaris missiles.  USS Tunny was a Gato-class submarine and one of the first nuclear deterrent submarines that served in World War II and Vietnam.  During her service, she received nine battle stars and two Presidential Unit Citations.

A Presidential Unit Citation for a Failed Attack—USS Tunny‘s Second War Patrol, 9 April 1943

H-Gram 018, Attachment 3
Samuel J. Cox, Director NHHC
April 2018 


USS Tunny (SS-282) was awarded the first of two Presidential Unit Citations for her second war patrol—from 24 March to 23 April 1943. Up until that point in the war, the U.S. submarine force had largely under-performed. Two primary reasons were the difficulty of finding targets in the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean and malfunctioning torpedoes; although, in some cases, lack of experience and aggressiveness in some submarine skippers was determined to be a factor. However, in Lieutenant Commander John A. Scott, Tunny had a truly aggressive and capable skipper. Tunny also had another advantage in that by early 1943, U.S. Navy codebreakers at Fleet Radio Unit Pacific (FRUPAC) had broken—and were copying with great regularity—the Japanese “Maru” code. Although not as sophisticated as the Japanese JN-25 series navy general operating codes, the Maru code nevertheless contained extremely valuable intelligence about Japanese ship movements. Lieutenant Commander Jasper Holmes had the lead for FRUPAC for sanitizing and passing communications intelligence-derived data to Commander, Submarine Force Pacific (COMSUBPAC) in a way that would not compromise the sensitive source. The ad-hoc process actually worked very well. As U.S. submarines were increasingly provided with the sanitized intelligence, their opportunities to sink Japanese ships also increased. The faulty torpedoes, however, were still a problem. (In H-Gram 008/H-008-3 “Torpedo Versus Torpedo,” I discussed these problems in detail.)

Tunny departed Pearl Harbor on 18 March 1943 for her second war patrol. After a brief stop at Midway Island she commenced transit on March 24 toward Japanese-held Wake Island. While conducting reconnaissance around Wake Island, Tunny sank the Japanese cargo ship Suwa Maru, firing two torpedoes for one hit. Tunny then survived being depth-charged and bombed twice. She moved on from Wake, and based on intelligence, located and sank the cargo ship Toyo Maru on April 2—firing three torpedoes for one hit. Lieutenant Commander Scott had a good shot at the cargo ship, but not the escorting destroyer 1,000 yards behind. He boldly sank the Toyo Maru anyway. Tunny then survived two sustained depth charge attacks. On 4 April, Tunny sank the cargo ship Kosei Maru—two for two on torpedoes. She then endured yet another sustained depth charge attack from escorting destroyers.

Lieutenant Commander Scott was among those submarine skippers who had come to believe, based on hard experience, that war-shot torpedoes ran deeper than the depth for which they were actually set. Since U.S. torpedoes were intended to pass under a ship and explode via magnetic influence, this was a serious problem. Although the Bureau of Ordnance continued to place the blame for poor results on the skippers rather than the torpedoes, some skippers like Scott were compensating by setting their torpedoes to run shallow. For the first part of this war patrol, Scott was having decent success with this technique, having sunk three ships in three attempts. What Scott didn’t know for sure—although he and other skippers suspected—was that the magnetic exploders were also unreliable. After that problem was discovered and fixed—by de-activating the magnetic exploder—it was learned that the contact exploders were unreliable too.

On April 8, the Intelligence analysts and code-breakers at FRUPAC decrypted a Maru code message that indicated a convoy including three aircraft carriers was due to arrive at the Japanese stronghold of Truk Island on early morning of April 10. Tunny was vectored to intercept. Scott planned to make a night surface attack, with his decks awash, making use of Tunny’s new “SJ” radar, which the Japanese had no means to detect. As described in the introduction, Scott’s initial set-up was textbook perfect, and although it was disrupted by the untimely appearance of three motor torpedo boats which forced him to attack submerged, it was still a great tactical set up. All four of the stern torpedoes fired at the lead smaller carrier were heard to explode, and three of the six fired at the larger carrier were heard to explode. Yet another sustained Japanese counter-attack by depth charges kept Tunny from getting visual or other confirmation of the hits.

Commander, Submarine Force Pacific would describe Scott’s attack as “an illustrious example of professional competence and military aggressiveness.” And it was—except for the torpedoes. In this case, setting them to run shallow backfired. The carriers were larger than the previous targets Scott had attacked, and the combination of shallow depth and larger magnetic signature caused the magnetic exploders to detonate prematurely—approximately 50 yards from their targets. These malfunctions were confirmed by subsequent intercept and decryption of Japanese communications that identified the small escort carrier Taiyo as having suffered minor damage as a result of the premature detonation of torpedoes. Analysis of this failure was a major factor in Admiral Nimitz’ decision to order the deactivation of the magnetic exploders in June 1943.

Tunny’s attack on the three carriers off Truk is also a great case study in how the “fog of war” becomes the “fog of history.” The identity of the three carriers is still in doubt, with the exception of the Taiyo. Accounts that identify the carriers by name state they were JunyoHiyo, and Taiyo. This, however, would not match Scott’s description of one large and two small carriers. Junyo and Hiyo were sisters, and although not full-size fleet carriers, were much larger than Taiyo. The small escort carrier Taiyo—and her sisters Chuyo and Unyo—proved to be a bad design, and the Japanese used them as aircraft-transport ferries rather than operational aircraft carriers. The three generally made runs between Japan and Truk ferrying aircraft. Japanese records show that Taiyo departed Yokosuka, Japan on April 4, in company with her sister Chuyo and escorts en route to Truk via Saipan. A U.S. submarine reported sighting the Junyo and Hiyo at Saipan at the same time Japanese records show Taiyo and Chuyo there. This misidentification made its way into official reports, and later histories. Japanese records also confirm that Taiyo and Unyo were present during Tunny’s attack, and would account for Scott’s sighting of two small carriers. The Junyo and Hiyo, as well as the Fleet Carrier Zuikaku and the smaller Zuiho, were at or near Truk at the time of the attack after having flown off their air groups to Rabaul and the Bougainville area of the northern Solomon to participate in Operation I-GO (see H-018-2). However, Japanese records do not indicate which, if any, of those other carriers were present during Tunny’s attack. On the other hand, the records of Zuikaku, Zuiho, Hiyo, Taiyo, and Unyo all eventually wound up on the bottom of the ocean. Only Junyo survived the war—sort of—as a badly damaged derelict in port, having been hit by three torpedoes from a “wolf pack” of three U.S. submarines. Unyo would be sunk by USS Sailfish (SS-192) on 4 December 1943, also near Truk. The true identity of the “large” carrier may never be known.

Tunny’s adventure was not yet over. On April 11, Tunny sighted the Japanese submarine I-9 on the surface near Truk. Tunny fired her three remaining forward torpedoes at the I-9; however, the Japanese submarine maneuvered to avoid them and counter-fired. Two torpedoes narrowly missed Tunny. She was then unsuccessful in trying to maneuver to sink a Japanese destroyer with her last torpedoes. The Japanese destroyer attacked first, and Tunnywas pounded yet again by depth charges, sustaining minor damage. She then concluded her patrol at Midway, and would receive a Presidential Unit Citation for her second war patrol. Lieutenant Commander Scott was awarded a Navy Cross.

Tunny would survive nine war patrols, and the fifth, also under the command of Scott, would earn her a second Presidential Unit Citation and a second Navy Cross for Scott. Among the highlights was Tunny’s duel with the Japanese submarine I-42. Although details are sketchy, it appears both submarines were aware of the other, and both maneuvered for about 90 minutes at relatively close range (under 2,000 yards) trying to gain a firing advantage over the other. Tunny won, and sank the I-42 with two torpedoes. Later in the patrol, Tunny fired six torpedoes at the Japanese super-battleship Musashi. The torpedoes passed under an escorting destroyer, which alertly signaled the Musashi, which was able to avoid all but one torpedo, which hit in her bow. The destroyer than counter-attacked down the torpedo wakes and subjected Tunny to yet another beating. The damage didn’t really faze the huge battleship, but she was out of action for a month for repairs.

Tunny continued her distinguished service after World War II. She was re-commissioned during the Korean War but did not serve there. Instead she was extensively modernized and converted to carry the Regulus land-attack surface-to-surface missile (with hangar for two missiles, and a launcher.) Tunny was re-designated as SSG-282. The drawback to the Regulus was that the submarine had to be surfaced to fire the missile. In 1966, Tunny was converted yet again into a troop-carrying submarine, with a deck shelter for small amphibious vehicles, and re-designated APSS-282. Tunny then conducted special operations and supported Marine amphibious operations along the coast of Vietnam. Tunny finally met her end as an exercise target, by a torpedo fired by the USS Volador(SS-490) in 1970.